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A book review is an opportunity to evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of a book. However, a book review is very different than a book report. The main feature of a book report is plot summary; but, in a book review, plot summary is secondary to the analysis of the content and should only be incorporated when it supports the analysis, or in a brief section at the start of the review.
A review is not a judgment on a book or author. It is an evaluation of an author’s work, which should be educated, thoughtful, and supported by evidence and explanations.
An introduction for a book review should include the name of the book, the name of the author, a brief summary of the book, the book’s objectives, overall thoughts about the book, a thesis statement, and a mapping scheme.
A Note on Summarizing the Book:
If a short summary of the book is required (2-5 sentences), then the summary can go in the introduction, before the thesis statement. A longer summary (more than 5 sentences), should be written as a separate paragraph after the introduction.
Whether the summary is included in the introduction or after it, only include information that is relevant to the thesis statement. In-depth details of the book are not required. The objective of the summary is to provide enough information for the reader to understand the context as it relates to the thesis statement.
A book review must include a thesis statement. A book review is designed to tell readers how the reviewer interprets the book by evaluating whether the author met his/her objective. The reviewer also needs to evaluate the claims that the author makes and whether or not those claims are valid. The evaluation of the objective and the claims should be the basis for the thesis statement. The evaluation also needs to be supported by evidence by using specific examples from the book, or using other credible sources to support the evaluation.
A Note on Thesis Statements:
A thesis statement should not be about feelings (e.g. “I really liked this book”), unless explicitly instructed otherwise.
The thesis statement may use a variety of approaches to evaluate a book:
- The significance of a text
“The book provides new insights into economic theory through its consideration of Karl Marx influence.”
- The author’s purpose and whether it was achieved
“The book does not achieve its purpose because it fails to provide sufficient evidence to support it’s claims.”
- How the text relates to the author’s other works
“In this work, the author continues to explore feminism, but unlike his/her earlier works on liberal feminism, this text focuses on radical feminist movements.”
- Why you enjoyed reading it or would recommend to someone
“The book is useful because it introduces new insights into behavourial psychology, and would be of interest to those interested in this topic.”
- How the text fits into a larger theoretical framework
“This text adds to contemporary understandings of early childhood development by creating links between existing theories and new theories.”
These examples are only suggestions. There are several other types of thesis statements that are suitable for book reviews.
Each paragraph of a book review should present a claim to prove the thesis statement and incorporate examples from the text as evidence. Individual paragraphs should not be focused on describing a part of the book.
A variety of elements in a book can be considered for evaluation; the elements under consideration should relate to the thesis statement and mapping scheme. The elements under consideration could include the structure/genre, the theme, narration, the author’s arguments, writing style, images, characters/setting, relation to other research in the same field, use of evidence, format of the book, and use of diagrams/visuals. These are only suggestions, how ever, a variety of other elements may be include in a book review.
The conclusion of a book review should restate the thesis statement, summarize the main points, and offer readers an overall evaluation of the text.
The conclusion should comment on whether the text was successful at achieving its purpose as outlined in the introduction. The conclusion may also comment on whether the text is a worthwhile read and suggest who may benefit from reading it.
- The significance of a text
The main problem here is the faulty parallelism. Thus, you can have two choices here:
- Doing the lab tests was fun; writing the report was complicated.
- To do the lab tests was fun; to write the report was complicated.
Each sentence will work grammatically, but the first one with the gerund is more commonly used. You need to understand that parallelism in similar structures requires the use of the same verb forms.
500 Word Essay on Respect: A Basic Human Right
Respect is one of the basic human rights. Every human being, nation and state deserve respect, realized through non-violation of their rights and freedoms. A dictionary definition of respect is admiration of someone or something as a result of their qualities or achievements. However, this definition can be extended with respect of feelings and needs of others without any special reasons. All human beings deserve respect and need to be treated with respect.
All people want to be treated with respect, often showing disrespect to the feelings and needs of others at the same time. The main instances of disrespect are rude words, limitation of freedom and imperious attitude. The generation gap can often become a reason for the lack of understanding and disrespect. Children can be rude with their parents, trying to defend their right for freedom of choice. Parents in their turn often disrespect children’s wishes, trying to prevent their mistakes. Of course, if a child wants to do something obviously bad, such as try drugs or drop out from high school, parents should explain why this decision is wrong and what negative consequences it can have. However, when a child wants to listen to some genre of music and choose a college they like, parents should respect their kids’ right for freedom of choice. Respect is an important factor which is necessary for building a trustful relationship.
People should understand that they deserve respect and they should demand to be treated correspondingly. Trying to avoid conflicts and to reach compromises, some people can sacrifice their own interests. Forgetting personal needs and desires often results in nervous breakdowns and negative psychological effects. It is important to understand that every person has the right for personal space, personal time and freedom of choice and it is normal to ask others to respect this right. Another important aspect is respecting people despite their nationality, ethnicity, religious beliefs or physical appearances. The increasing rates of bullying in schools and colleges because someone does not meet the Hollywood standards of beauty clearly show that youths lack empathy and respect to others. On the other hand, the victims of bullying who get complexes of inferiority should learn more about self-respect and their right to be treated with respect. Showing respect and being treated with respect is a two way process. People should always treat others the way they would like to be treated themselves.
Respect to every human being is one of the major principles of modern humanistic society. However, certain changes need to be made in mass media to make popular culture more respectful. For example, claiming that all people are born equal and everyone deserves respect, the TV shows and movies focus on non-disabled actors with beautiful bodies. Giving more attention to people with special needs and those who do not meet the generally accepted norms of beauty but who are beautiful in their own ways could influence the public consciousness. On the other hand, self respect is an important condition which is necessary for the proper balance in society. Those who know their rights and understand their own needs are more often treated with respect than those who feel inferior to others for certain reasons.
If everyone could be more respectful and understanding, this world would be a better place to live in. As one of the basic human rights and major principles of humanistic society, respect can make a difference, preventing social problems and personal tragedies.
Global Warming or Global Misuse of Funds?
It seems that in the history books of the future the last decades of the 20th century are going to be described as the time of the “environmental/politically correct craze”. Indeed, during this historical period, the forces of the lefty – wing agenda have thrown billion dollars in the air towards a number of purely imaginary technological, environmental and health care – related scares. For example, one may easily recollect the public “paranoia” connected with Y2K. Some of especially “progressive” activists used to refer to the anticipated effects of Y2K as such that would result in the end of the world. Andrea Tapia states, “Predicted scenarios (on account of Y2K) ranged from a few days of inconvenience, similar to a bad snowstorm, to that of complete global shut down and resulting chaos” (2003, 483). Yet, on January 1, 2000, it became clear to the society that Y2K has turned out to be nothing but a sham. As for today, public still remains unaware of what has happened to billion dollars spent by the Western governments to mitigate the expected effects of Y2K.
A decade earlier, the anticipated catastrophe was discussed within the context of thinning of the ozone layer over Antarctica that results in creation of ozone holes. In its turn, deterioration of the ozone layer was believed to be caused by aerosol sprays that contain a chemical ingredient called freon. Within very short time, after the beginning of the “ozone scare”, freon-containing sprays were banned worldwide. This resulted in allowing the DuPont Corporation to double its enormous profits, as the company remained the only patent-holder on producing substitutes of freon. Dunn marks that the issue of ozone layer depletion served to drawing the society’s attention towards the activity of the Green movement while the core of the problem remained somewhat obscure for a non-specialist (2007). By the beginning of the 1990s, the ozone holes simply patched themselves up naturally, and today passionate environmentalists try to omit this issue in their discussions. Thus, there is a clearly defined pattern about how urban myths of modernity come into being. The so – called global warming is nothing else than
one of those myths, and this paper aims at exploring this issue.
FINANCIAL ASPECTS OF “ENVIRONMENTAL SCARES”
In 2003, the world’s prominent medias came up with the new “terrifying” news about the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS), which was supposed to reduce the population of Earth by two within five years. Landis MacKellar refers to the “danger” of SARS as to something evident: he says that during a single airline flight, 16 individuals were affected by the disease, which is interpreted as an extensive epidemic (2007). By 2005, the funds spent by the World Health Organization to fight SARS amounted to $600000000. And yet, the actual number of occurrences of SARS from 2003 to 2009 accounts for only 20 individuals worldwide while tuberculosis kills 3 million people annually. Just like in case of the DuPont corporation during the epoch of the “ozone scare”, the pharmaceutical lobby in the Western countries quickly used the opportunity to utilize the “SARS scare” to generate huge profits.
Nevertheless, the so-called global warming represents the biggest neo-Liberal sham up to these days. Just like in the case of the ozone holes, the increase of the world climate’s average temperature by 0.7 degree Celsius which took during the last century is solely attributed to the humankind’s industrial activities. The theoretical background of the concept of the global warming has been intentionally simplified; as a result, even curious housewives would be able to consider themselves to be experts in saving the planet. They are able to explain that emission of CO2 into the atmosphere by industries results in creation of the greenhouse effect, which is defined as the situation when the energy of the Sun is not reflected back into the space but becomes “trapped” underneath the layer of greenhouse gases. In turn, this leads to the Earth’s atmosphere being excessively heated, which negatively affects the population of the planet. Hans Baer states:
Global warming appears to be the primary impetus behind the spread of infectious-borne diseases to environments north and south of the equator and heat waves that threaten the lives and health of vulnerable populations, such as the elderly and the sick. (2008, 60)
For those who are aware of history of the previous “scares”, there seems to be nothing unique in the developmental pattern of the “scare of the global warming”: sensational revelations in medias supported by the references to some obscure (and often not existing) scientists followed by the “public outcry” in regards to these revelations… Followed by governmental spending of billons of dollars to deal with the situation, followed by promoters of the “global warming” justifying their misuse of funds and revealing new “shocking details” about an “impending danger”… Followed by governments spending the new amount of money to combat the purely imaginary evil – and so it goes on. Yet, for those who were still able to retain their ability to independently assess the surrounding reality, the link between the global warming and the humankind’s industrial activities appears utterly superficial. For example, the eruption of one large volcano emits as much CO2 into the atmosphere as all coal-operated power plants in the world together do within the period of hundred years.
Therefore, the introduction of the Kyoto Protocol in 1997 and its signing by most of the world’s nations actually had nothing to do with the protection of the environment: the financial matters traditionally remained in the focus. According to the Protocol (1997 Kyoto Protocol), by 2012, countries – signatories are supposed to reduce their industries’ emission of carbon monoxide by 5 – 10%. Thus, under the executive framework of the Protocol, every country has its own quota to the emission of CO2; in case the amount of the emitted CO2 is less then quotas allow, countries can sell the remains of their “legal CO2 emission” to the other over-emitting countries for many million dollars. In 1997-2005, Russia alone was able to generate about one billion dollars out of the thin air, which was smartly used by Russian oligarchs. Thus, the Kyoto Protocol appears to be nothing but another initiative of the UN’s bureaucracy conspired with the world’s financial plutocracy to legitimization of the global misuse of finances.
This was exactly the reason why after having signed the Protocol initially, the USA and Australia decided to pull out of it. As it has been rightly pointed out in Baden and O’Brien (1994), the issue of the global warming is not only scientific, but also very emotional, and there is enough space for political manipulations. Apparently, as time goes by, an increasing number of former supporters of the Kyoto Protocol understand its real hidden motive. Hoff Stauffer argues, “The debate on global warming is burdened with unfortunate misconceptions that inhibit progress in moving forward. One misconception is that ‘draconian measures’ would be required to mitigate global warming” (1998, 14). Nevertheless, the main problem with the global warming is not that the promoters of environmentalism proceed with their agenda too enthusiastically, but that the whole concept of the global warming is nothing but another scientifically unsubstantiated myth.
The editorial There Is No Global Warming by the American Policy Center provides the information that is able to make one revise his/her attitude towards the danger of the global warming:
Scientific research through U.S. Government satellite and balloon measurements shows that the temperature is actually cooling – very slightly – .037 degrees Celsius. In 1936, the Midwest of the United States experienced 49 consecutive days of temperatures over 90 degrees. There were another 49 consecutive days in 1955. But in 1992 there was only one day over 90 degrees and in 1997 only 5 days. (American Policy Center 2008)
The fact that during the course of the 1990s the world climate’s average temperature has slightly risen is nothing but a part of what meteorologists refer to as the global climatic fluctuations; in fact, the planet’s climate never ceased being a subject of these fluctuations. For example, in the 13th century A.D., due to the “global warming”, winery-based agriculture could be found even as far up to the North as in Scotland. Then, in the early 14th century, the “global cooling” came; it is now referred to by historians as the “Little Ice Age”. Both the medieval global warming and global cooling were the reflection of the specifics of solar activity during this particular period of history. The fact that the years 2008-2010 were marked by especially cold winters in the Northern hemisphere points out to the fact that environmentalism followers may soon switch from being concerned about the global warming thinking about the global cooling.
Even if the global warming, in the media-sponsored context of this expression, was to continue, it would have to be welcomed rather than opposed, as the postindustrial Western countries will be able to benefit from it. O’Brien and Leichenko state that most countries located in the Northern hemisphere would be winners in the global warming while Africa and countries situated in the low coastal zones would be losers in this situation (2003, 97). However, unfortunately, there is nothing new about the Third World countries being “losers” in the geopolitical sense of this word. In fact, cynical as it may sound, if a number of people in the Third World countries is reduced due to the global warming, it will effectively eliminate the problem of these countries’ overpopulation thus contributing greatly to the UN’s officially proclaimed agenda of “eliminating the world’s hunger”.
It is possible to summarize the discussed issues as follows: if people want to understand the true motive of the global warming-related paranoia, they just need to ask themselves a question, “Quo bono?” (“Who benefits?”). Given the fact that the representatives of the world’s plutocracy were able to benefit enormously from previous artificially induced “scares”, there can be very little doubt that the global warming is an analogical case. Thus, the very concept of the global warming, in the form that it is has been currently presented to the public, is nothing but one more baseless but utterly profitable urban myth of the modern time.
Evaluation essay topics for you:
- The Problem of Acid Depositions in Industrialized Countries
- The Role of the American Civil War and Its Impact on US Further Development
- Ways to Cope with Illegal Aliens in the USA: to Let Them Stay Illegally, to Legalize Them, or to Find and to Deport?
- Technology Advancement: Benefits and Potential Risks
- E-communication Versus Human Interaction
- Healthcare Issue in America: Labor Shortages, Limited Access, and Quality
- Johnson and Johnson Production Versus Pfizer’s One
- The Role of Communication in the Modern Technical World
- Mental Health and the Prison System
- The Plague of the 21st Century: AIDS/HIV
- The Internet: Technology and Service
- The Impact Produced by Europeans on Native American Indians
- The Influence of Childhood on Further Personality Development
- The Role of the United Nations in International Politics
- Healthcare Reforms by Roosevelt and Clinton
- Andrew Carnegie and the Development of the Steel Industry
- Oil and Democracy: Corruption, Oppression, and Gross Income Disparity
- Pros and Cons of Animal Rights’ Movements
- Public Held Companies and Their Ethical Responsibilities
- The Overlapping Issue Faced by Today’s Management
An annotated bibliography is an organized list of resources (books, documents, articles, videos, websites). Every entry in the annotated bibliography is formatted according to the rules of a certain citation style and followed by a brief explanation and evaluation of its quality and relevance.
- The purposes of an annotated bibliography
- Organization of an annotated bibliography
- Elements of an annotated bibliography entry
- Structure and format of an annotated bibliography
- Useful vocabulary
The purposes of an annotated bibliography
The main purposes of an annotated bibliography include the following:
- To give examples of the available resources
- Show the quality of research conducted
- Start a research of the subject
- Describe other items related to the subject matter
Depending on the scope of the bibliography, it can be comprehensive (attempting to include as many sources as possible or even all of them) or selective (including only sources illuminating a selected parameter).
Organization of an annotated bibliography
The alphabetical order is the most common way of organizing sources in an annotated bibliography. The other options for organizing the entries are the following:
- Chronological (according to the year of publication or the period of the subject matter or philosophical movement).
- By the authors’ approaches to the subject matter.
- By format of the sources (books separated from articles and web pages etc.).
Elements of an annotated bibliography entry
The main elements of each entry in the annotated bibliography include the following:
- The annotation credentials, including the authors’ names, the source title, date and place of publication, cited according to the rules of the corresponding citation style;
- findings and conclusions made by the authors (must have);
- format – book/ article/ web page and special features if any, such as glossary or index, for example (must have);
- relationship to other works in the field, special contributions (must have);
- authors’ authority – years of experience working in the field, degrees or other professional achievements (optional);
- potential bias – what might influence their opinions (optional).
Structure and format of an annotated bibliography
No introduction, conclusion or transitions sentences between paragraphs are necessary for the annotated bibliography. The annotated bibliography consists of separate paragraphs which are united only with the topic under discussion.
Length: each entry in the annotated bibliography usually is as clear and concise as possible. It usually takes 100 – 150 words per entry (unless something different is instructed).
Grammar: the third person is commonly used, though the first person might be used in some exceptional cases.
Syntax: Complete sentences are the most appropriate structure for an annotated bibliography, but simple phrases or lists can be used as well.
Structure: Every entry is one paragraph long. Every paragraph starts from a brief summary of the author’s position and core arguments.
To avoid the repetition of the same constructions, the authors can use varied language:
- It was found out that…
- It was suggested that…
- It was reported that…
- The authors state…
- The purpose of this report is…
- This article concerns…
The other ways to say ‘say’:
analyze argue assess conclude describe evaluate examine explain illustrate imply investigate narrate propose question report review suggest state
On this, I have to agree with Kamilla (above).
If English is not your native language, you better hope your teacher does not have expect much of you in a research paper. If English is your native language, I don’t know how you could have graduated from high school with your English and Spelling level. Normally, the use of very good English grammar and spelling is the minimum expected in a “research paper”.
Your best option is probably to pay someone to write it for you or to edit whatever you write, and that will be no small task. You need to take remedial English courses.
Good luck, keep studying.
Stories are a useful way to learn the English language when used in conjunction with other language tools. In the “Learn English Kids” section of its website, the British Council provides a number of stories to aid with language development. The BBC’s Learning English guide provides simple versions of its leading news stories as part of its language package.